Pamukkale is a natural beauty in Denizli province, southwest Turkey. Deposits of calcium carbonate flowing from the Spas of the city and rivers cover terraces and travertines. It is located in River Meander Basin in Aegean Region of Turkey, which has a temperate climate.

In this area 17 hot water springs, in which temperature ranges from 35 and 100 C°. Thermal spring of Pamukkale has been used since ancient times. The water that emerges from the spring is transported 320 meters to the travertine terraces and deposits calcium carbonate on a section of 60 to 70 meters long covering a route of 240-300 m.

Pamukkale is recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Travertines offer a visual richness and they are thought to be good for health issues such as heart, rheumatism, eye and skin diseases.


It was founded in 190 BC by Eumenes II. The city came under the domination of Roman Empire in 2 BC and it was the golden era for the city; besides; after it was collapsed by earthquakes it became a typical Roman city with its architecture. As Saint Phillippus, one of the apostles of Jesus Christ, was murdered here, the city gained a religious prominence. It was Byzantium city in 395 AD and later on the city was within the boundaries of the Seljuks in 1210.

Underground waters of Pamukkale used for treatment have attracted tourists for years thanks to its travertine terraces.

Great Bath Complex was founded outside the city to allow the passengers to have a bath before they came into the city.

Since the capacity of the theater was 9.500 people, it is estimated that the population of the city was around 95.000-100.000.

From the design of the theatre, it seems that gladiators fought here. There is one meter elevation difference between the rows and the stage in order to protect the audience from fierce animals. This feature is not found in other theatres where gladiators did not fight, and rows start from the same level as the stage.

The figure of Medusa engraved on the entrance door of the city was made to protect the city from Goddess Medusa. It is though that such belief has found a place in Turkish culture as amulets. The city is included in World Heritage List by UNESCO.


Laodkeia was founded in a good geographical location on the south side of the Lycus River, 6 km north of Denizli province. The city was called “Laodikeia on the bank of the Lycus” in ancient sources. According to other ancient sources, the city was founded by Antiochos II in 263-261 BC and named after Antiochos wife.

Laodikeia was the most famous and important city in the 1stcentury BC. The remains of the city are dated back to this era. The Romans made the city center of Kybira’s conventus (Golhisar-Horzum) because of the geographical location.

A series of coins were minted in Ladikeia during the reign of Caracalla. Many monumental buildings were also built in Laodikeia through contribution of the local inhabitants. One of the famous seven churches in Asia Minor is here, which shows that Christianity was important here. Unfortunately, the city was completely destroyed by the earthquake in 60 AD.


Aphrodisias was founded on a plateau, 600 meters above sea level at the outskirts of Babadag. There is not much information in ancient resources regarding the history of the city. It is beyond doubt that it was a large, crowded and very developed city. The theatre holding ten thousand people, stadium for 30 thousand audience, bath consisting of five large areas, agora and rich public buildings of the city present very significant information about the style of life and level of culture. However, the most important building of the city is the temple dedicated to the goddess, whose name was given to the city.

Many pieces of ceramics were found in the foundations of the oldest building in the region, which is believed to have been a sacred place and built over a smaller temple and thus ceramics are believed to behave been left on altars.The construction of the modern temple in the city center started in the 1stcentury BC and completed after 150 years. Zoilos, whose name was mentioned in two inscriptions at the temple, was a liberated slave. The first inscription was found on boundary stones of the sacred area in the temple: “[This area] was defined as sacred asylum by the Great Ceasar and [his son] Emperor [Caesar and] the Senate and the Roman people … C. Julius Zoilos, Bishop of Aphrodite had border stones erected…..” The word “asylum” mentioned in the inscription meant the right of asylum and one who entered such area or building was taken under protection unconditionally. On another inscription in the temple, it says: “C. Julius Zoilos, Bishop of Aphrodite, savior and grantor of the motherland, dedicated Aphrodite temple [to]…” It is for sure that Zoilos supported Aphrodite Temple to a great extend whether it is a boundary stone or else. However, contrary to great care during construction, this splendid temple was converted into a Christian basilica with additions in 6th century AD, only 500 years later.


Ephesus ancient city is thought to have been founded around 6 thousand BC during Neolithic Age. Research and excavations at the höyük(artificial mounds known as tells) in nearby Ephesus ancient city in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age and the Hittites at Ayasuluk Hill, where the tower is locate. Ancient city of Ephesus was a coastal town where immigrants from Greece started to live. Ephesus was moved around Artemis Temple in time and people settled there. Today’s Ephesus was founded by Lysimakhos, one of the generals of Alexander the Great in 300 BC. Ancient city of Ephesus is one of the most important places in the world.

Ancient city of Ephesus has always been important in the fields of civilization, science, culture and art since its history. Ephesus ancient city was an important harbor town. Its position enabled Ephesus to become the most significant trade and policy center of its age and the capital of the Asia state during Roman Age. However, being the capital was not the only factor that made Ephesus a prominent trade center in ancient era. The biggest Artemis temple is also located in Ephesus.